This week we begin the discussion on LEAN, 5S & Six Sigma. These are three initiatives which many companies are instituting to improve quality and reduce waste within their organization.
(The attachment LEAN brings results was added after our 2/2 class. Please read it along with the rest of material below. We will discuss highlights of this handout on Thursday, 2/9. Update: Annotated version uploaded on 2/16.)
The concept of LEAN is to minimize waste. Read through the attachment LEAN Brings Results. Make special note of the spaghetti diagram and the dollar amount of WIP (work in progress). Here's the pdf: The Eight Wastes of LEAN from Wisconline.com
Here's a quote from the Defense Acquisition University:
"Lean Manufacturing is a manufacturing philosophy which shortens the time between the customer order and the product build/shipment by eliminating sources of waste."
Perhaps the best definition of Lean that we have encountered is based upon a story told by Mr. Ohno-who in a discussion with Mr. Cho (the future president of Toyota Motor Manufacturing Company, Georgetown KY) about the origins of the TPS (Toyota Production System), indicated that (what we now call Lean) is a manufacturing phenomenon that seeks to "maximize the work effort of a company's number one resource, the People." Lean is therefore "a way of thinking" to adapt to change, eliminate waste, and continuously improve. There are a number of tools and techniques, to be used in concert, to achieve maximizing the effort of the workforce and to operate as a "lean" company."
In addition, here's a link to Lean Thinking and Methods by the U.S. EPA.
Here is the Wikipedia description of "Lean".
Here's Wikipedia on muda or "waste".
LEAN is a methodology to eliminate waste. One link which didn't get posted for last week is The Eight Wastes of a LEAN Production System.
A term often included in discussions of LEAN is Six Sigma. More will be discussed about this, but here is a brief introduction. Six Sigma deals with minimizing process variation.
Here's a brief description of "lean six sigma"
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lean_Six_S ... plified.29
5S Methodology is a workplace organization concept. Originally in Japanese, the English word translation for 5S is: Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize & Sustain.
5S Workplaces: When Safety & LEAN meet.
Here is a description from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency about various Process Improvement methods .
Cellular Manufacturing involves creating production work stations and equipment arranged in a sequence that supports a smooth flow of materials and components. Cellular Manufacturing from Encyclopedia.com.
Last January I received an e-mail for this webinar (web delivered seminar) 3D Printing Makes Lean Manufacturing Leaner. Below is the text of the e-mail:
Documents available from this webinar include this whitepaper: and the pdf of the Powerpoint from the Webinar: "Six Sigma". The next four links contains interactive tutorials from Wisc-online.This webinar will present an overview of 3D printing and how the technology helps manufacturing operations become leaner by eliminating wasted time, materials, space, and labor. Attendees will learn how 3D printing can reduce design-to-production cycle times through rapid and iterative prototyping, and how the broader spectrum of materials now available makes 3D printing a practical approach to many tooling applications as well as to producing replacement parts on demand. Attendees will also learn how manufacturing operations can take maximum advantage of these enhancements by establishing an in-house 3D printing capability. The presentation will explain how, as the costs of purchasing and using a 3D printing system continue to decline, the return on the investment of setting up an in-house capability has become greater and is realized sooner.
What is Sigma? Why Six?
http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/inde ... ID=QLT1404
Six Sigma and the Cost of Quality
http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/inde ... ID=QLT1504
Six Sigma DMAIC Steps
http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/inde ... ID=QLT1304
Six Sigma Process Performance Analysis
http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/inde ... ID=QLT2204
Some additional links:
LEAN/Six Sigma Culture
Pareto Effect: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pareto_principle and http://management.about.com/cs/generalm ... 081202.htm.
For Homework due before next class: Work through each of the Wisc-Online links above on your own in addition to the time we spent in class. Also, do a bit of research and find the definitions of the acronyms "TIMWOODS" and "DOWNTIME" in relation to LEAN concepts. Are all of these concepts similar? When you have completed working through the assigned Wisc-Online links, post a Reply to this topic below stating you have completed the assignment.